Human security challenges facing Nigeria in this age of globalization is revealed by massive suppliers and importation of small arms and light weapon. Nigeria has no visible trace of substantial arms and light weapon production, yet there is so much of these weapons in the wrong hands. This made the transnationalization of instability possible in Nigeria. This is further revealed when some northern Nigerians Islamic extremists picked up arms against their target in Nigeria, in reaction to western role in the Middle East crisis and perceived killings in the Arab world. The presence of small arms and light weapons causes crisis of security among different ethnic, religious and political class. It is so unprecedented that both the security of the state and human security is threatened. The basis for this position is that globalization takes its toll on peace and security in Nigeria because the inspired relaxation of boundary enforcement rules appears to have made Nigerians lost much of its powers on transnational crimes including arms importation. Though human security is threatened, it is also human security neglect by the institution of the state that created fertile ground for the illegal importation and used of small arms and light weapons. However, it is the position of this paper, that a shift in focus to human security would therefore require understanding sources of threat and the reformulation of strategies towards ameliorating conditions that favour illegal importation and use of small arms and light weapon in Nigeria. This will greatly reduce arms proliferation and its attendance consequences.